B級片

1963年由「B級片之王」羅傑·科曼美國國際影業拍攝的《魔鴉》,擔任製片與導演。文森特·普萊斯領銜主演;多名性格演員參演,其中包括年輕的傑克·尼克遜

B級片(英語:B movieB film)是指低成本製作的商業電影,而非文藝片。在最初定義裏,B級片指在好萊塢黃金時代雙片連映形式發行的電影中相對鮮為人知的電影,類似唱片行業里的B面歌。現今美國電影產業中,雙片連映的製作發行方式在1950年代末逐步消失,但B級片卻有了更廣泛的定義。在後黃金時代,B級片的定義出現歧義:一方面,B級片被認為是剝削電影,特色為淫穢內容;另一方面,B級片被認為展示出電影的高工藝水準與美學創造力。

在這兩種解釋中,大多數B級片被認為代表一種特定的電影類型西部片是B級片的黃金時代,而低成本科幻片恐怖片則在1950年代開始受歡迎。早期的系列B級片裡,相同演員會重覆飾演相同角色。然而,B級片片長總是短於頂級製作的電影[1],大多在70分鐘以內,導致當時觀眾認為B級片不如大製作電影,也讓很多影評人忽略個別B級片。

現代B級片雖會激發多部續集電影,但已很少出現系列電影。隨著大製作電影平均放映時長增加,B級片片長也開始增加。如今,B級片定義依舊存在矛盾:現代B級片可能是缺乏藝術野心的類型電影,也可能是既不像大製作電影被綁手綁腳、也不拘泥於「嚴肅獨立電影」的活潑歡快的電影。同時,這個術語也可指某些高預算且帶剝削性質的主流電影,它們通常與傳統B級片相關類型片有關。

一直以來,B級片為很多電影從業人員和其他事業不順遂的人提供機會。安東尼·曼喬納森·戴米等知名電影人都是從B級片開始鍛鍊製作電影的能力;約翰·韋恩傑克·尼克遜等著名影星亦以B級片為職涯開端;同時也給前電影明星文森特·普萊斯凱倫·布萊克繼續發展的機遇。有些演員,像貝拉·洛戈西布魯斯·坎貝爾帕姆·格里爾等,則將他們大部分電影生涯貢獻給B級片。B級演員B actor)有時指主要或專門拍攝B級片的電影演員。

發展歷史

好萊塢黃金年代

1930年代

1940年代

1950年代的轉型

黃金年代的剝削

1960年代

1970年代

衰落

1980年代

1990年代

到了1990年,美國電影的平均成本已超過2500萬美元。[153]當年上映的九部美國票房收入超過1億美元的電影中,有兩部在1970年代後期之前嚴格來說屬於B級片:《忍者龜》和《狄克崔西》。另外三部——科幻驚悚片《魔鬼總動員》、充滿動作的偵探驚悚片《終極警探2》和當年最受歡迎的兒童喜劇《小鬼當家》——也更接近傳統的B級片,而非經典的A級片主題。[154]家庭電影的日益普及、有線電視和衛星電視上得以收看未經剪輯的電影、以及與日俱增的房地產壓力,使得作為獨立電影主要發源地的那種小型或非連鎖影院的生存更加困難。[155]汽車戲院也迅速從美國景觀中消失。[156]

倖存的B電影以各種方式適應著。特羅馬娛樂製作的電影現在經常直接跳過院線發行新線影業在成立最初十年中,幾乎完全是低成本獨立電影和外國類型片的分銷商;隨著剝削片老手衛斯·克萊文原創的《半夜鬼上床》(1984)取得巨大成功(新線影業直接投入近200萬美元的成本),該公司開始穩步轉向更高預算的類型片製作。1994年,新線影業被出售給透納廣播公司;它很快成為一個中型工作室,並與華納兄弟一起在時代華納集團內運營。[157]次年,Showtime電視網推出了《羅傑·科曼作品》,這是由New Concorde製作的13部有線電視首映系列電影。《紐約時報》的一位評論家發現,一開始的作品被稱為「復古的科曼......從裸露的女性乳房到令人興奮的湯瑪斯·曼在《魂斷威尼斯》的引述都含在內」。[158]

在放映B級片的戲院消失的同時,獨立電影運動興起;結果就是低預算類型電影和「精緻」藝術電影之間的各種交叉。導演阿貝爾·費拉拉以暴力B級片(如《電鑽殺手》(1979)和《45女士》(1981))聞名,他在90年代初拍了兩部電影,將剝削電影常見的的性、毒品和一般猥褻描寫與對榮譽和救贖的複雜審查相結合:《紐約之王》(1990)得到了一群主要為小型製作公司的支持,《流氓幹探》(1992)的180萬美元成本則完全獨立出資。[159]賴瑞·費森登的小預算怪獸電影,如《No Telling》(1991)和《Habit》(1997),分別重構經典類型主題——科學怪人吸血鬼——以探索與當代相關的議題。[160]大衛·柯能堡的《慾望號快車》(1996)預算為1000萬美元,雖然不算A級,但也算不上B級。這部電影的意像是另一回事:「大衛·柯能堡的《慾望號快車》在其令人震驚的表面上暗示了剝削片最令人不安的病態」評論家珍妮特·馬斯林寫道。[161]如同《紐約之王》由一個製作公司財團資助,它由佳線電影公司在美國發行。此結果反映了電影對定義的混亂:佳線影業新線影業的子公司,最近併入華納媒體——具體來說,它是舊剝削片發行商的藝術部門。[162]昆汀·塔倫提諾以850萬美元預算執導的《黑色追緝令》(1994),藉由非線性敘事成為極具影響力的大片,正如詹姆士·莫特拉姆(James Mottram)所描述:「憑藉其實驗電影的敘事結構、B級片主題和好萊塢演員陣容,這部電影是三種不同電影傳統相交的軸心。」[163]

21世紀以降的轉型

到千禧年之際,製作一部美國電影已平均需耗時三年並花費超過5000萬美元成本。[153]2005年,美國票房前十的電影中,包含三部改編自兒童奇幻小說、一部延續及一部開啟系列電影(分別是《哈利波特:火盃的考驗》和《納尼亞傳奇:獅子·女巫·魔衣櫥》)、兒童動畫片(《馬達加斯加》)、漫改電影(《蝙蝠俠:開戰時刻》)、科幻系列電影續集(《星際大戰三部曲:西斯大帝的復仇》)、科幻改編電影(《世界大戰》),以及翻拍電影《金剛》。[164]對科曼來說,這是漫長的一年:他只製作了一部電影,還沒有在美國上映,而過去十年他參與的大多數電影亦是如此。[165]隨著高成本製作的好萊塢電影進一步取代傳統低預算類型片,B級片品牌的生存能力受到嚴重質疑。《紐約時報》評論家A·O·史考特警告說,B級片的「俗氣、野蠻、罪惡的樂趣」即將「滅絕」。[166]

另一方面,最近的行業趨勢表明,傳統的「A-B分裂」在主要工作室的製作中重新出現,儘管有更少的「程式設計師」彌合差距。根據行業分析師阿方索·馬龍2006年的一份報告,「目前好萊塢電影的平均預算約為6000萬美元,如果將國內上映的行銷成本(僅限美國)考慮在內,則上升到1億美元。然而,我們現在正在目睹電影預算兩極分化成兩個層次:大型製作(1.2到1.5億美元)和小眾電影(500到2000萬美元)。……預計製作成本3000到7000萬美元的電影發行量將減少。」[167]福斯於2006年成立了一個新的子公司——福斯原子能(Fox Atomic),專注於青少年面向的類型片。經濟模式為刻意的低成本,至少按照主要工作室的標準。根據《綜藝》的一份報告,「福斯原子能的許多電影預算都保持在不高於1000萬美元。它還鼓勵電影製作人以數位方式拍攝——這是一種更便宜的流程,能產生更堅韌、更適合青少年的結果。並忘記明星。福斯原子能公布的九部電影中,沒有一部是鼎鼎大名的」。[168]新奇的B級片部門於2009年關閉。[169]

正如《綜藝》的報導,近來的技術進步大大促進真正低預算電影的製作。雖然拍攝電影一直有經濟實惠的方式,包括超8毫米16毫米底片,以及錄製到模擬錄影帶上的攝影機,但都無法與35毫米膠片的畫面品質相媲美。如今數位相機和後製技術的發展,使電影製作者即便低預算也能作出亮眼的、而非必然「蒙上一層灰」的畫面品質與剪輯效果的電影。正如馬龍觀察到的,「數位拍攝所需的設備預算(攝影機、技術)大約為膠片的1/10,大大降低獨立電影的製作預算。同時,(自2000年代初)數位電影的製作已顯著改善。」[167]獨立電影製作人,不論拍攝類型電影還是藝術追求,發現儘管數位端對端的發行方法提供了新的機會,依然很難進入發行管道。以類似的方式,YouTube等網站為展示低預算電影開闢了全新途徑。[170]

同樣地,從2000年起,電腦生成圖像技術的加速和應用以前所未有的速度持續著。[171]這有助於做出以傳統手法成本過高的效果,特別是某些電影類型,例如使用越來越多CGI的災難片怪獸電影。因此,這一趨勢刺激了面向大眾的B級片的增長。在這種情況下,瘋人院影業等電影公司或Syfy等頻道齊心協力開發B級片,有些公司甚至將此類電影作為其商業模式的關鍵部分。[172]然而,許多此類電影的製作通常是為了利用更成熟的功能的成功。 此外,這一新方向同樣獲得羅傑·科曼吉姆·懷諾斯基等資深B級片製片人的參與。

衍生術語

C級片及更常見的Z級片指涉B級片裡逐漸降低的等級。與特定歷史現象相關的「汽車電影」和「午夜電影」這兩個術語現在常被視為B級片的同義詞。

C級片

C級片C movie)指品質比B級片更差的電影類型;在某些電影分類法中,C級片指僅次於B級片的低等電影類型[173]。1980年代,隨有線電視興起,C級片漸漸被視為低品質類型電影的代名詞,而這些電影大多進入有線電視市場。此後,C級片中的「C」有了雙重含義:一方面指該類影片品質低於B級片,另一方面指有線電視英語「Cable Television」的首字母。電視劇《神秘科學劇院3000》(1988-99)C級片的概念家喻戶曉,該劇第一年就在全國有線頻道播出(先是Comedy Central頻道,然後是Syfy頻道)。該劇更新了電視女主持人邁拉·魯米30多年前提出的概念,展示廉價、低等級的電影,主要是1950年代和1960年代的科幻題材及點出電影缺陷的配音評論。導演艾德·伍德在這個意義上被稱為「C級片大師」,儘管Z級片可能更適用於他的作品。[174]1990年代和2000年代,諸如Sci Fi(及其Sci Fi Pictures製片公司)和 HBO的類型節目頻道等利基有線和衛星頻道的迅速擴張,意味著當代C級片的市場,其中許多是直接在有線電視發行的電影——低預算類型電影從未在戲院上映。[175]

Z級片

艾德·伍德的超低預算電影《外太空九號計劃》(1959)經常被稱為「史上最糟電影」

Z級片Z moviegrade-Z movie)被用來描述品質遠低於大多數B級片甚至C級片的低預算電影。大多數被稱為Z級片的電影都是由電影界的邊緣運營商以極低預算製作的。1930年代貧困行製作的微預算電影被認為可能是Z級片的前衛(avant la lettre)。[176]導演艾德·伍德的電影,例如《忽男忽女》(1953)和《外太空九號計劃》(1959)——後者經常被認為是史上最糟電影之一[177]——是經典Z級片的例子。後來的Z級片往往以暴力、血腥或色情內容為主打特色,幾乎沒有藝術追求,使得其中多數電影註定只能收費頻道上發行。[178]

精神病電影

精神病電影Psychotronic movie)是影評人邁克爾·J·韋爾登創造的術語——他被同行影評人稱為「邊緣電影歷史學家」——代表那些常被評論機構鄙視或完全忽略的低成本類型片。[179]該詞源於1980年的芝加哥邪典電影《The Psychotronic Man》,該片主角為理髮師,他開發了以精神能量殺人的能力。根據韋爾登的說法,「我一開始對這個詞的想法是它是由兩個部分組成的詞。『Psycho』代表恐怖電影,而『tronic』代表科幻電影。我很快地將這個詞的含義延伸為包括任何形式的剝削電影或B級片。」[180]該詞在1980年代開始流行,隨著韋爾登的著作相繼出版,如《精神病電影百科全書》(The Psychotronic Encyclopedia of Film)、《精神病影片指南》(The Psychotronic Video Guide)和《精神病影片》(Psychotronic Video)雜誌,該詞陸續被粉絲和其他評論家引用。若遇到能作為坎普風欣賞的B級片,通常會以此術語強調對這些電影的關注與喜愛。[181]

B級劇

B級劇B-television)是德國媒體學者海德瑪麗·舒馬赫在她的文章《從真、善、美到真正美的商品》(From the True, the Good, the Beautiful to the Truly Beautiful Goods)中使用的術語——德國「B-Television」節目的觀眾識別策略,用B級片來比喻德國商業電視的發展,採用「廣告美學」、「每個參與者都散發著空虛的積極性,包含剪輯、柔焦和朗朗上口的音樂」,以及「通過置入性行銷宣傳商品」。[182]舒馬赫指出,在1984年放鬆管制後,德國公共電視正要從巔峰滑落並逐漸被邊緣化,而新成立且在沒有社會合法性負擔的情況下運營的商業電視台只關注盈利能力。為了建立和維持觀眾的忠誠度,這些電視台播放真人秀、聳動新聞、每日肥皂劇資訊娛樂節目、脫口秀遊戲節目軟調色情片。舒馬赫還在文中提及美國文化評論家尼爾·波茲曼的著作《娛樂至死》,作者將電視節目比喻為廣告衍生品,並會形成「一種應被假訊息的訊息——錯置、無關、破碎或膚淺的訊息讓人以為自己懂了,實際上卻更加不懂」。

與波茲曼一樣,舒馬赫指出,當代電視廣告通常是為了加強品牌忠誠度而非宣傳產品。電視廣播公司使用這種逆向行銷方法來宣傳電視臺自己。舒馬赫列舉三大具體原則:博觀眾眼球、使觀眾共情及抓住觀眾胃口來作為爭取市佔率的基石。RTL電視台以正面的方式描述建立觀眾忠誠度:「RTL為電視發現一個新東西:觀眾」。[182]

舒馬赫認為,觀眾忠誠度主要透過對熟悉的情感經歷及觀眾日常的問題來建立,這意味著私人電視臺主要播放私人的內容。這種方法的進一步發展促成真人秀問世,這類節目通過直接干預參與者實際生活來創造現實。用理察·森尼特的話來說,這種電視節目的個性化和戲劇化促成了「公眾人物的墮落」。

通過情感感受建立觀眾忠誠度的策略反映在可恥的「特別新聞」中,即「偏愛性和犯罪主題,採用高度情緒化的評論風格、剪輯美學及從犯罪片學來的配樂」。[182]例如,舒馬赫提到了《極度私密》,一個關於人類性行為的脫口秀,在1990年代由NBC一週播五次。「標題本身包含了『B級劇』的訊息:真實的人和他們『真實』的問題是這裡的焦點」[182]舒馬赫認為。

提到大衛·萊特曼傑·雷諾非常成功的娛樂節目,舒馬赫宣稱,每天在電視上看到脫口秀主持人幾乎成為家庭的一部分。「不僅散播虛無,還散播安全感」,主持人「提供我們日常生活一塊固定的部分」以及每日肥皂劇、每日資訊娛樂節目或每日遊戲節目。

「吸引觀眾情緒和消費者的積極參與強化了『B級劇』開拓市場的能力」舒馬赫總結道。

來自《波特蘭水星報》的埃瑞克·亨利克森在評論電視劇《星際奇兵:亞特蘭提斯》時用「B級劇」這個詞來描述那種不是「真的很棒」而是「剛好起作用的節目——儘管以有些尷尬且愚蠢的方式——成功娛樂觀眾,一週又一週地沿用相同角色,製作的模板情節擁有足夠原創性與獨特性來使它們變有趣並能分散注意力。」[183]

參考文獻

  1. ^ B-film. Encyclopædia Britannica. [2020-05-09]. (原始內容存檔於2020-05-13). 
  2. ^ Hirschhorn (1999), pp. 9–10, 17.
  3. ^ Finler (2003), pp. 41–42; Balio (2003), p. 29.
  4. ^ See, e.g., Taves (1995), p. 320.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Balio (1995), p. 29. See also Schatz (1999), pp. 16, 324.
  6. ^ See Finler (2003), pp. 26, 41–43, 47–49.
  7. ^ Finler (2003), pp. 18–19.
  8. ^ Taves (1995), pp. 326–27.
  9. ^ See, e.g., Balio (1995), pp. 103–4.
  10. ^ Epstein (2005), p. 6. See also Schatz (1999), pp. 16–17.
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Taves (1995), p. 325.
  12. ^ Taves (1995), p. 326.
  13. ^ Epstein (2005), p. 4.
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Finler (2003), p. 42.
  15. ^ Taves (1995), p. 317. Taves (like this article) adopts the usage of "programmer" argued for by author Don Miller in his 1973 study B Movies (New York: Ballantine). As Taves notes, "the term programmer was used in a variety of different ways by reviewers" of the 1930s (p. 431, n. 8). Some present-day critics employ the Miller–Taves usage; others refer to any B movie from the Golden Age as a "programmer" or "program picture".
  16. ^ Balio (1995), p. 102.
  17. ^ Finler (2003), pp. 26, 111, 116.
  18. ^ Tuska (1999), pp. 183–84.
  19. ^ See Taves (1995), pp. 321–29.
  20. ^ Adapted from Finler (2003), p. 26.
  21. ^ See Taves (1995), p. 323; McCarthy and Flynn (1975), p. 20. In its peak year, 1937, Grand National did produce around twenty pictures of its own.
  22. ^ Taves (1995), p. 313.
  23. ^ Nachbar (1974), p. 2.
  24. ^ Tuska (1974), p. 37.
  25. ^ Taves (1995), pp. 327–28.
  26. ^ Taves (1995), p. 316.
  27. ^ See, e.g., Taves (1995), p. 318.
  28. ^ Quoted in Schatz (1999), p. 75.
  29. ^ Naremore (1998), p. 141.
  30. ^ Taves (1995), p. 328.
  31. ^ Schatz (1999), p. 73.
  32. ^ Schatz (1999), pp. 19–21, 45, 72, 160–63.
  33. ^ Schatz (1999), p. 16.
  34. ^ Schatz (1993), p. 11.
  35. ^ See, e.g., Finler (2003), pp. 4, 6.
  36. ^ Jewell (1982), 181; Lasky (1989), 184–85.
  37. ^ Schatz (1999), p. 78.
  38. ^ Schatz (1999), pp. 340–41.
  39. ^ Schatz (1999), p. 295; Naremore (1998), p. 142.
  40. ^ Robert Smith ("Mann in the Dark," Bright Lights 2, no. 1 [fall 1976]), quoted in Ottoson (1981), p. 145.
  41. ^ Schatz (1999), p. 173, table 6.3.
  42. ^ Schatz (1999), p. 232; Finler (2003), pp. 219–20.
  43. ^ Finler (2003), p. 216.
  44. ^ See, e.g., Dave Kehr, "Critic's Choice: New DVD's," The New York Times, August 22, 2006; Dave Kehr, "Critic's Choice: New DVD's," The New York Times, June 7, 2005; Robert Sklar, "Film Noir Lite: When Actions Have No Consequences," The New York Times, "Week in Review," June 2, 2002.
  45. ^ Jewell (1982), pp. 218, 219.
  46. ^ For a detailed consideration of classic B noir, see Lyons (2000).
  47. ^ Finler (2003), pp. 214–15.
  48. ^ Jewell (1982), p. 147.
  49. ^ Schatz (1999), p. 175.
  50. ^ Naremore (1998), p. 144.
  51. ^ See Mank (2001), p. 274.
  52. ^ Strawn (1974), p. 257.
  53. ^ Lev (2003), p. 205.
  54. ^ Lasky (1989), p. 229.
  55. ^ See Finler (2003), pp. 357–58, for top films. Finler lists The Country Girl as 1955, when it made most of its money, but it premiered in December 1954. The Seven Year Itch replaces it in this analysis (the two films happen to be virtually identical in length).
  56. ^ See, e.g., Matthews (2007), p. 92; Lyons (2000), p. 53.
  57. ^ Lev (2003), pp. 60–61.
  58. ^ Hurd (2007), pp. 10–13.
  59. ^ Muller (1998), p. 176; Cousins (2004), p. 198.
  60. ^ Jewell (1982), p. 272.
  61. ^ Maltby (2000).
  62. ^ Schrader (1972), p. 61; Silver (1995).
  63. ^ Shapiro (2002), p. 96. See also Atomic Films: The CONELRAD 100頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館).
  64. ^ Kinnard (1988), pp. 67–73.
  65. ^ Lev (2003), pp. 186, 184; Braucort (1970), p. 75.
  66. ^ Auty (2005), p. 34. See also Shapiro (2002), pp. 120–24.
  67. ^ Davis, Blair. The Battle for the Bs: 1950s Hollywood and the Rebirth of Low-Budget Cinema. Rutgers University Press. 2012-04-06 [2022-04-01]. ISBN 9780813553245. (原始內容存檔於2022-04-01) (英語). 
  68. ^ Strawn (1974), p. 259; Lev (2003), p. 206.
  69. ^ Lentz (2002), p. 17.
  70. ^ Cook (2000), p. 324. See also p. 171.
  71. ^ Denisoff and Romanowski (1991), pp. 64–65, 95–100, 105.
  72. ^ Di Franco (1979), p. 3.
  73. ^ Corman (1998), p. 36. It appears Corman made at least one true B picture—according to Arkoff, Apache Woman, to Corman's displeasure, was handled as a second feature (Strawn [1974], p. 258).
  74. ^ Rausch and Dequina (2008), p. 56.
  75. ^ Heffernan (2004), pp. 102–4.
  76. ^ Heffernan (2004), pp. 95–98.
  77. ^ Segrave (1992), p. 33.
  78. ^ Heffernan (2004), p. 161.
  79. ^ Matthews (2007), p. 91.
  80. ^ 80.0 80.1 Cook (2000), p. 324.
  81. ^ Nason (1959).
  82. ^ Hirschhorn (1979), p. 343.
  83. ^ Miami New Times|. [2022-04-01]. (原始內容存檔於2022-04-14). 
  84. ^ Thompson (1960).
  85. ^ Quoted in Di Franco (1979), p. 97.
  86. ^ Per Corman, quoted in Di Franco (1979), p. 97.
  87. ^ Quoted in Reid (2005a), p. 5.
  88. ^ Schaefer (1999), pp. 187, 376.
  89. ^ Schaefer (1999), p. 118.
  90. ^ Schaefer (1992), p. 176, n. 1.
  91. ^ Gibron, Bill. Something Weird Traveling Roadshow Films. DVD Verdict. July 24, 2003 [November 17, 2006]. (原始內容存檔於October 20, 2006). 
  92. ^ Halperin (2006), p. 201.
  93. ^ Frasier (1997), pp. 7–8, 13.
  94. ^ Frasier (1997), pp. 9–11, 90; Denisoff and Romanowski (1991), pp. 116–18.
  95. ^ Frank (1998), p. 186; McGilligan (1996), p. 183.
  96. ^ 96.0 96.1 Cook (2000), p. 222.
  97. ^ Paul (1994), p. 33.
  98. ^ Rockoff (2002), pp. 32–33.
  99. ^ Langford (2005), p. 175.
  100. ^ Heffernan (2004), p. 221; Cook (2002), pp. 70–71.
  101. ^ Cook (2000), pp. 222–23.
  102. ^ Heffernan (2004), pp. 190, 200–1.
  103. ^ Cook (2000), p. 223.
  104. ^ Canby (1969).
  105. ^ Di Franco (1979), pp. 162, 165.
  106. ^ See, e.g., Mathijs and Mendik (2008), p. 167; James (2005), pp. 282, 398; Cagin and Dray (1984), pp. 66–67.
  107. ^ Cagin and Dray (1984), pp. 61–66.
  108. ^ Financial figures per associate producer William L. Hayward, cited in Biskind (1998), p. 74.
  109. ^ Cagin and Dray (1984), p. 53.
  110. ^ See Finler (2003), p. 359, for top films. Finler lists Hello, Dolly! as 1970, when it made most of its money, but it premiered in December 1969. The Owl and the Pussycat, 51 minutes shorter, replaces it in this analysis.
  111. ^ From 1955: Apache Woman, The Beast with a Million Eyes, Day the World Ended, The Fast and the Furious, and Five Guns West. From 1970: Angels Die Hard, Bloody Mama, The Dunwich Horror, Ivanna (aka Scream of the Demon Lover; U.S. premiere: 1971), and The Student Nurses. For purchase of Ivanna: Di Franco (1979), p. 164.
  112. ^ Di Franco (1979), p. 160.
  113. ^ Kael (1973), p. 269.
  114. ^ Willis (1997), p. 254, n. 30.
  115. ^ Lawrence (2008), p. 27.
  116. ^ Cook (2000), p. 260.
  117. ^ Van Peebles (2003).
  118. ^ Haines (2003), p. 69; Landis and Clifford (2002), pp. 117–21.
  119. ^ Haines (2003), p. 49; Landis and Clifford (2002), pp. 3–4.
  120. ^ 120.0 120.1 Merritt (2000), p. 229.
  121. ^ Quoted in Reynaud (2006). See Reynaud also for Loden's fundraising efforts. See also Reynaud, Bérénice. For Wanda. Sense of Cinema. 1995 [December 29, 2006]. (原始內容存檔於2011-03-19). 
  122. ^ Williams (1996), pp. 171–73.
  123. ^ Wood (2003), pp. 118–19.
  124. ^ Kauffman (1998), pp. 118–28; Williams (1996), pp. 198–200.
  125. ^ See, e.g., Milne (2005), p. 389.
  126. ^ Greenspun (1973).
  127. ^ See, e.g., Stevenson (2003), pp. 49–50; Hollows (2003); Staiger (2000), p. 112.
  128. ^ Merritt (2000), pp. 254–57.
  129. ^ Hoberman and Rosenbaum (1983), p. 13.
  130. ^ Cook (2000), pp. 266–71; Desser (2000).
  131. ^ Ebert (1974).
  132. ^ For the film's cost: West (1974), p. 9; Rockoff (2002), p. 42. For its influence: Sapolsky and Molitor (1996), p. 36; Rubin (1999), p. 155.
  133. ^ For the film's cost and worldwide gross: Harper (2004), pp. 12–13. For its influence and debt to Black Christmas: Rockoff (2002), pp. 42–44, 50–55; Paul (1994), p. 320.
  134. ^ Waterman (2005), pp. 38–39.
  135. ^ Schaefer (1999), p. 224; Goodwin (1987), p. 341.
  136. ^ Levine (2007), pp. 114–15.
  137. ^ Paul (1994), pp. 288, 291.
  138. ^ Paul (1994), p. 92.
  139. ^ Heffernan (2004), p. 223.
  140. ^ Superman (1978). Box Office Mojo. [December 29, 2006]. (原始內容存檔於2019-07-18). 
  141. ^ See Major film studio#Organizational lineage for a record of the sales and mergers involving the eight major studios of the Golden Age.
  142. ^ Finler (2003), p. 42. Prince (2002) gives $9 million as the average production cost in 1980, and a total of $13 million after adding on costs for manufacturing exhibition prints and marketing (p. 20). See also p. 21, chart 1.2. The Box Office Mojo website gives $9.4 million as the 1980 production figure; see Movie Box Office Results by Year, 1980–Present. Box Office Mojo. [December 29, 2006]. (原始內容存檔於December 30, 2006). 
  143. ^ Lubasch (1979).
  144. ^ Cook (2000), pp. 323–24.
  145. ^ Collum (2004), pp. 11–14.
  146. ^ Canby (1984).
  147. ^ Petit (2005), p. 1481.
  148. ^ Cost per Bruce Campbell, cited in Warren (2001), p. 45
  149. ^ David Chute (Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, May 27, 1983), quoted in Warren (2001), p. 94.
  150. ^ Kraus, Daniel. Tromatized!. Salon. October 30, 1999 [January 8, 2010]. (原始內容存檔於2011-02-06). 
  151. ^ Morrow (1996), p. 112.
  152. ^ Berra (2008), p. 74.
  153. ^ 153.0 153.1 Movie Box Office Results by Year, 1980–Present. Box Office Mojo. [December 29, 2006]. (原始內容存檔於December 30, 2006). 
  154. ^ 1990 Yearly Box Office Results. Box Office Mojo. [December 29, 2006]. (原始內容存檔於December 6, 2006).  Dick Tracy literally had been B movie material—the character was featured in four low-budget RKO films in the 1940s. For how espionage and crimebusting thrillers were long "widely regarded as nothing more than B-movie fodder," see Chapman (2000), pp. 46–50.
  155. ^ Heffernan (2004), p. 225.
  156. ^ Finler (2003), p. 379.
  157. ^ Finler (2003), pp. 287, 290.
  158. ^ O'Connor (1995).
  159. ^ Johnstone (1999), p. 16.
  160. ^ King (2005), pp. 167, 170–75.
  161. ^ Maslin (1997).
  162. ^ Mottram (2006), pp. 197–98; Wyatt (1998), p. 78. For details of the film's distribution, see Lewis (2002), pp. 286–88.
  163. ^ Mottram (2006), p. 75.
  164. ^ 2005 Yearly Box Office Results. Box Office Mojo. [January 2, 2007]. (原始內容存檔於January 17, 2007). 
  165. ^ See, e.g., Rausch, Andrew J. Roger Corman on Blair Witch Project and Why Mean Streets Would Have Made a Great Blaxploitation Film. Images. 2000 [August 13, 2010]. (原始內容存檔於2017-09-01). Saroyan, Strawberry. King of the Killer B's需要付費訂閱. Telegraph. May 6, 2007 [August 13, 2010]. (原始內容存檔於January 11, 2022). 
  166. ^ Scott (2005).
  167. ^ 167.0 167.1 Marone, Alfonso. One More Ride on the Hollywood Roller-coaster (PDF). Spectrum Strategy Consultants. 2006 [December 29, 2006]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於February 3, 2007). 
  168. ^ Zeitchik and Laporte (2006).
  169. ^ Fleming, Michael. Fox Folding Atomic Label. Variety. April 19, 2009 [April 27, 2010]. (原始內容存檔於2010-07-31). 
  170. ^ Rabiger (2008), pp. 7, 10; Davies and Wistreich (2007), p. 5.
  171. ^ Nashville Film Institute. What is CGI? – Everything You Need to Know. NFI. 2021 [January 7, 2021]. (原始內容存檔於2022-04-19). 
  172. ^ Suddath, Claire. Inventing 'Sharknado': Inside Syfy's Booming B-Movie Factory. Bloomberg. 12 July 2013 [January 7, 2021]. 
  173. ^ Megumi Komiya 2012
  174. ^ Oppermann (1996).
  175. ^ See, e.g., Campos, Eric. David Payne: Do Fear the Reeker. Film Threat. December 12, 2005 [October 20, 2006]. (原始內容存檔於March 10, 2007). 
  176. ^ See, e.g., Taves (1995), p. 323.
  177. ^ Coleman Francis: The Real Worst Director in Film History – Paste. [2022-04-01]. (原始內容存檔於2022-04-24). 
  178. ^ See, e.g., Quarles (2001), pp. 79–84.
  179. ^ McDonagh, Maitland. Sad News: Psychotronic Video Magazine Gives Up the Ghost. TVGuide.com. July 17, 2006 [December 26, 2006]. (原始內容存檔於October 12, 2007). 
  180. ^ Ignizio, Bob. The Psychotronic Man (interview with Michael Weldon). Utter Trash. April 20, 2006 [October 20, 2006]. (原始內容存檔於September 11, 2006). 
  181. ^ See, e.g., Schneider and Williams (2005), pp. 2, 5; Syder and Tierney (2005), pp. 34–35, 50–53.
  182. ^ 182.0 182.1 182.2 182.3 Schumacher, Heidemarie. From the True, the Good, the Beautiful to the Truly Beautiful Goods—audience identification strategies on German "B-Television" programs (PDF). Schüren Verlag, Marburg. 1995 [2022-04-01]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2021-08-29). 
  183. ^ Henriksen, Erik. Blu-ray Review (Sort of): Stargate Atlantis. Portland Mercury. 19 August 2011 [5 June 2018]. (原始內容存檔於2021-08-29). 

參考資料

  • Archer, Eugene (1960). "'House of Usher': Poe Story on Bill With 'Why Must I Die?'" The New York Times, September 15 (available online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)).
  • Auty, Chris (2005). "The Amazing Colossal Man," in Pym, Time Out Film Guide, p. 34.
  • Balio, Tino (1995 [1993]). Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise, 1930–1939. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20334-8
  • Berra, John (2008). Declarations of Independence: American Cinema and the Partiality of Independent production. Bristol, UK, and Chicago: Intellect. ISBN 1-84150-185-9
  • Biskind, Peter (1998). Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How the Sex-Drugs-and-Rock'n'Roll Generation Saved Hollywood. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80996-6
  • Braucort, Guy (1970). "Interview with Don Siegel", in Focus on the Science Fiction Film (1972), ed. William Johnson, pp. 74–76. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-795161-2
  • Cagin, Seth, and Philip Dray (1984). Hollywood Films of the Seventies. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-091117-4
  • Canby, Vincent (1969). "By Russ Meyer," The New York Times, September 6 (available online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)).
  • Canby, Vincent (1984). "Down-and-Out Youths in 'Suburbia'", The New York Times, April 13 (available online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)).
  • Chapman, James (2000). Licence to Thrill: A Cultural History of the James Bond Films. New York and Chichester, West Sussex: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12049-4
  • Collum, Jason Paul (2004). Assault of the Killer B's: Interviews with 20 Cult Film Actresses. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1818-4
  • Cook, David A. (2000). Lost Illusions: American Cinema in the Shadow of Watergate and Vietnam, 1970–1979. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23265-8
  • Corman, Roger, with Jim Jerome (1998). How I Made a Hundred Movies in Hollywood and Never Lost a Dime, new ed. New York: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80874-9
  • Cousins, Mark (2004). The Story of Film. New York: Thunder's Mouth. ISBN 1-56025-612-5
  • Davies, Adam P., and Nicol Wistreich (2007). The Film Finance Handbook: How to Fund Your Film. London: Netribution. ISBN 0-9550143-2-8
  • Denby, David (1985). "Where the Coyotes Howl", New York, January 21, pp. 51–53.
  • Denisoff, R. Serge, and William D. Romanowski (1991). Risky Business: Rock in Film. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction. ISBN 0-88738-843-4
  • Desser, David (2000). "The Kung Fu Craze: Hong Kong Cinema's First American Reception", in The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity, ed. Poshek Fu and David Desser, pp. 19–43. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77235-4
  • Di Franco, J. Philip, ed. (1979). The Movie World of Roger Corman. New York and London: Chelsea House. ISBN 0-87754-050-0
  • Ebert, Roger (1974). "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre," Chicago Sun-Times, January 1 (available online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)).
  • Epstein, Edward Jay (2005). The Big Picture: The New Logic of Money and Power in Hollywood. New York: Random House. ISBN 1-4000-6353-1
  • Finler, Joel W. (2003). The Hollywood Story, 3d ed. London and New York: Wallflower. ISBN 1-903364-66-3
  • Frank, Allan G. (1998). The Films of Roger Corman: "Shooting My Way out of Trouble". London: B.T. Batsford. ISBN 0-7134-8272-9
  • Frasier, David K. (1997 [1990]). Russ Meyer—The Life and Films. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0472-8
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns (1987). The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys: An American Saga. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-23108-1
  • Greenspun, Roger (1973). "Guercio's 'Electra Glide in Blue' Arrives: Director Makes Debut With a Mystery," The New York Times, August 20 (available online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)).
  • Haines, Richard W. (2003). The Moviegoing Experience, 1968–2001. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1361-1
  • Halperin, James L., ed. (2006). Heritage Signature Vintage Movie Poster Auction #636. Dallas: Heritage Capital. ISBN 1-59967-060-7
  • Harper, Jim (2004). Legacy of Blood: A Comprehensive Guide to Slasher Movies. Manchester, UK: Headpress. ISBN 1-900486-39-3
  • Heffernan, Kevin (2004). Ghouls, Gimmicks, and Gold: Horror Films and the American Movie Business, 1953–1968. Durham, N.C., and London: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3215-9
  • Hirschhorn, Clive (1979). The Warner Bros. Story. New York: Crown. ISBN 0-517-53834-2
  • Hirschhorn, Clive (1999). The Columbia Story. London: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-59836-5
  • Hoberman, J., and Jonathan Rosenbaum (1983). Midnight Movies. New York: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80433-6
  • Hollows, Joanne (2003). "The Masculinity of Cult," in Defining Cult Movies: The Cultural Politics of Oppositional Taste, ed. Mark Jancovich, pp. 35–53. Manchester, UK, and New York: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-6631-X
  • Hunter, I. Q. (2009). "Exploitation as Adaptation", in Cultural Borrowings: Appropriation, Reworking, Transformation, ed. Iain Robert Smith, pp. 8–33. Nottingham: Scope. ISBN 978-0-9564641-0-1 (available online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)).
  • Hurd, Mary G. (2007). Women Directors and Their Films. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-98578-4
  • James, David E. (2005). The Most Typical Avant-Garde: History and Geography of Minor Cinemas in Los Angeles. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24257-2
  • Jewell, Richard B., with Vernon Harbin (1982). The RKO Story. New York: Arlington House/Crown. ISBN 0-517-54656-6
  • Kael, Pauline (1973). "Un-People," in her Reeling (1976), pp. 263–79. New York: Warner. ISBN 0-446-83420-3
  • Kauffman, Linda S. (1998). Bad Girls and Sick Boys: Fantasies in Contemporary Art and Culture. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21032-8
  • King, Geoff (2005). American Independent Cinema. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-937-0
  • Kinnard, Roy (1988). Beasts and Behemoths: Prehistoric Creatures in the Movies. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8108-2062-5
  • Komiya, Megumi, and Barry Litman, "The Economics of the Prerecorded Videocassette Industry," in Social and Cultural Aspects of VCR Use, ed. Julia R. Dobrow, pp. 25–44. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8058-0499-4
  • Landis, Bill, and Michelle Clifford (2002). Sleazoid Express: A Mind-Twisting Tour through the Grindhouse Cinema of Times Square. New York: Fireside/Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-1583-4
  • Langford, Barry (2005). Film Genre: Hollywood and Beyond, 2d ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1903-8
  • Lasky, Betty (1989). RKO: The Biggest Little Major of Them All. Santa Monica, Calif.: Roundtable. ISBN 0-915677-41-5
  • Lawrence, Novotny (2008). Blaxploitation Films of the 1970s: Blackness and Genre. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96097-5
  • Lentz, Harris M. (2002). Obituaries in the Performing Arts, 2001. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1278-X
  • Lev, Peter (2003). Transforming the Screen: 1950–1959. New York et al.: Thomson-Gale. ISBN 0-684-80495-6
  • Levine, Elena (2007). Wallowing in Sex: The New Sexual Culture of 1970s American Television. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3919-6
  • Lewis, Jon (2002). Hollywood v. Hard Core: How the Struggle over Censorship Created the Modern Film Industry. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-5143-1
  • Loy, R. Philip (2004). Westerns in a Changing America, 1955–2000. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1871-0
  • Lubasch, Arnold H. (1979). "Allied Artists Seeks Help Under Bankruptcy Act; Allied Artists Files Chapter XI," The New York Times, April 5.
  • Lyons, Arthur (2000). Death on the Cheap: The Lost B Movies of Film Noir. New York: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80996-6
  • Maltby, Richard (2000). "'The Problem of Interpretation...': Authorial and Institutional Intentions In and Around Kiss Me Deadly," Screening the Past (June 30, available online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)).
  • Mank, Gregory William (2001). Hollywood Cauldron: 13 Horror Films from the Genre's Golden Age. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1112-0
  • Maslin, Janet (1997). "An Orgy of Bent Fenders and Bent Love," The New York Times, March 21 (available online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)).
  • Mathijs, Ernest, and Xavier Mendik,eds. (2008). The Cult Film Reader. Maidenhead and New York: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-21924-1
  • Matthews, Melvin E. (2007). Hostile Aliens, Hollywood, and Today's News: 1950s Science Fiction Films and 9/11. New York: Algora. ISBN 0-87586-497-X
  • McCarthy, Todd, and Charles Flynn, eds. (1975). Kings of the Bs: Working Within the Hollywood System—An Anthology of Film History and Criticism. New York: E.P. Dutton. ISBN 0-525-47378-5
  • McGilligan, Patrick (1996). Jack's Life: A Biography of Jack Nicholson. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31378-6
  • Merritt, Greg (2000). Celluloid Mavericks: The History of American Independent Film. New York: Thunder's Mouth. ISBN 1-56025-232-4
  • Milne, Tom (2005). "Electra Glide in Blue," in Pym, Time Out Film Guide, p. 389.
  • Morrow, John (1996). "Cinekirbyesque: Examining Jack's Deal with Empire Pictures," Jack Kirby Collector 12 (July).
  • Mottram, James (2006). The Sundance Kids: How the Mavericks Took Back Hollywood. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-571-22267-6
  • Muller, Eddie (1998). Dark City: The Lost World of Film Noir. New York: St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-18076-4
  • Nachbar, Jack, ed. (1974). Focus on the Western. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-950626-8
  • Naremore, James (1998). More Than Night: Film Noir in Its Contexts. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21294-0
  • Nason, Richard (1959). "Weak 'Hercules'; Italian-Made Spectacle Opens at 135 Theatres," The New York Times, July 23 (available online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)).
  • O'Connor, John J. (1995). "Horror Hero of the 90's, Half Man, Half Bomb," The New York Times, July 11 (available online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)).
  • Oppermann, Michael (1996). "Ed Wood" (film review), Journal of American Studies of Turkey 3 (spring, available online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)).
  • Ottoson, Robert (1981). A Reference Guide to the American Film Noir: 1940–1958. Metuchen, N.J., and London: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-1363-7
  • Paul, William (1994). Laughing, Screaming: Modern Hollywood Horror and Comedy. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08464-1
  • Petit, Chris (2005). "The Winged Serpent (aka Q—The Winged Serpent)," in Pym, Time Out Film Guide, p. 1481.
  • Prince, Stephen (2002). A New Pot of Gold: Hollywood Under the Electronic Rainbow, 1980–1989. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23266-6
  • Pym, John, ed. (2005). Time Out Film Guide, 14th ed. London et al.: Time Out. ISBN 1-904978-87-8
  • Quarles, Mike (2001 [1993]). Down and Dirty: Hollywood's Exploitation Filmmakers and Their Movies. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1142-2
  • Rabiger, Michael (2008). Directing: Film Techniques and Aesthetics, 4th ed. Burlington, Mass.: Focal Press. ISBN 0-240-80882-7
  • Rausch, Andrew J., with Michael Dequina (2008). Fifty Filmmakers: Conversations with Directors from Roger Avary to Steven Zaillian. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-3149-0
  • Reid, John Howard (2005a). Hollywood 'B' Movies: A Treasury of Spills, Chills & Thrills. Morrisville, N.C.: Lulu. ISBN 1-4116-5065-4
  • Reid, John Howard (2005b). Movie Westerns: Hollywood Films the Wild, Wild West. Morrisville, N.C.: Lulu. ISBN 1-4116-6610-0
  • Rockoff, Adam (2002). Going to Pieces: The Rise and Fall of the Slasher Film, 1978–1986. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1227-5
  • Reynaud, Bérénice (2006). "Wanda's Shattered Lives" (booklet accompanying Parlour Pictures DVD release of Wanda).
  • Rubin, Martin (1999). Thrillers. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58183-4
  • Russell, Carolyn R. (2001). The Films of Joel and Ethan Coen. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0973-8
  • Sapolsky, Barry S., and Fred Molitor (1996). "Content Trends in Contemporary Horror Films," in Horror Films: Current Research on Audience Preferences and Reactions, ed. James B. Weaver, pp. 33–48. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8058-1174-5
  • Schaefer, Eric (1992). "Of Hygiene and Hollywood: Origins of the Exploitation Film", in Hollywood: Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies—Vol. 1: Historical Dimensions: The Development of the American Film Industry (2004), ed. Thomas Schatz, pp. 161–80 (originally published in The Velvet Light Trap 30). New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28131-8
  • Schaefer, Eric (1999). "Bold! Daring! Shocking! True!": A History of Exploitation Films, 1919–1959. Durham, N.C., and London: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2374-5
  • Schatz, Thomas (1993). "The New Hollywood", in Film Theory Goes to the Movies: Cultural Analysis of Contemporary Film, ed. Jim Collins, Hilary Radner, and Ava Preacher Collins, pp. 8–36. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-90575-3
  • Schatz, Thomas (1998 [1989]). The Genius of the System: Hollywood Filmmaking in the Studio Era. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-19596-2
  • Schatz, Thomas (1999 [1997]). Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22130-3
  • Schneider, Steven Jay, and Tony Williams (2005). Horror International. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3101-7
  • Schrader, Paul (1972). "Notes on Film Noir", in Silver and Ursini, Film Noir Reader, pp. 53–63 (originally published in Film Comment 8, no. 1).
  • Scott, A. O. (2005). "Where Have All the Howlers Gone?" The New York Times, "Arts & Leisure," December 18.
  • Segrave, Kerry (1992). Drive-In Theaters: A History from Their Inception in 1933. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland. ISBN 0-89950-752-2
  • Shapiro, Jerome F. (2002). Atomic Bomb Cinema: The Apocalyptic Imagination on Film. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93659-4
  • Silver, Alain (1995). "Kiss Me Deadly: Evidence of a Style", rev. ver., in Silver and Ursini, Film Noir Reader, pp. 209–35.
  • Silver, Alain, and James Ursini, eds. (1996). Film Noir Reader. Pompton Plains, N.J.: Limelight. ISBN 0-87910-197-0
  • Staiger, Janet (2000). Blockbuster TV: Must-see Sitcoms in the Network Era. New York and London: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-9757-1
  • Stevenson, Jack (2003). Land of a Thousand Balconies: Discoveries and Confessions of a B-Movie Archaeologist. Manchester, UK: Headpress/Critical Vision. ISBN 1-900486-23-7
  • Strawn, Linda May (1975 [1974]). "Samuel Z. Arkoff [interview]", in McCarthy and Flynn, Kings of the Bs, pp. 255–66.
  • Syder, Andrew, and Dolores Tierney (2005). "Importation/Mexploitation, or, How a Crime-Fighting, Vampire-Slaying Mexican Wrestler Almost Found Himself in an Italian Sword-and-Sandals Epic", in Schneider and Williams, Horror International, pp. 33–55.
  • Taves, Brian (1995 [1993]). "The B Film: Hollywood's Other Half", in Balio, Grand Design, pp. 313–50.
  • Thompson, Howard (1960). "'Hercules Unchained' Heads Twin Bill", The New York Times, July 14 (available online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)).
  • Tuska, Jon (1974). "The American Western Cinema: 1903–Present", in Nachbar, Focus on the Western, pp. 25–43.
  • Tuska, Jon (1999). The Vanishing Legion: A History of Mascot Pictures, 1927–1935. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0749-2
  • Van Peebles, Melvin (2003). "The Real Deal: What It Was... Is! Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song" (commentary accompanying Xenon Entertainment DVD release of Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song).
  • Warren, Bill (2001). The Evil Dead Companion. New York: St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-27501-3
  • Waterman, David (2005). Hollywood's Road to Riches. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01945-8
  • West, Richard (1974). "Scariest Movie Ever?", Texas Monthly, March, p. 9.
  • Williams, Tony (1996). Hearths of Darkness: The Family in the American Horror Film. Cranbury, N.J., London, and Mississauga, Ontario: Associated University Presses. ISBN 0-8386-3564-4
  • Willis, Sharon (1997). High Contrast: Race and Gender in Contemporary Hollywood Film. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2041-X
  • Wood, Robin (2003). Hollywood from Vietnam to Reagan—and Beyond, exp. and rev. ed. New York and Chichester, West Sussex: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12967-X
  • Wyatt, Justin (1998). "The Formation of the 'Major Independent': Miramax, New Line, and the New Hollywood", in Contemporary Hollywood Cinema, ed. Stephen Neale and Murray Smith, pp. 74–90. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-17010-9
  • Zeitchik, Steven, and Nicole Laporte (2006). "Atomic Label Proves a Blast for Fox", Variety, November 19 (available online 網際網路檔案館存檔,存檔日期January 21, 2010,.).

外部連結

B級片專家的採訪

#