百科全書,或科學、藝術和工藝詳解詞典

1751年版《百科全書》的扉頁

百科全書,或科學、藝術和工藝詳解詞典》(法語:Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers),通稱《百科全書》(Encyclopédie),是1751年至1772年間由一批法國啟蒙思想家編撰的一部法語百科全書。共17卷正編,11捲圖編,此後其他人多有補編,1780年再版時共有35卷。《百科全書》以啟蒙主義為目的,條目常常夾敘夾議、議論時政,造成有時知識的介紹被議論喧賓奪主,從百科全書的角度而言並不能算是一部理想的工具書。

全書由法國的印刷業主布雷頓策劃[1]:47,1751年起由狄德羅主編,1759年起由讓·勒朗·達朗貝爾共同主編。參加編纂的主要人員有孟德斯鳩魁奈杜爾哥伏爾泰盧梭布豐等不少法國啟蒙運動時期的著名人物。他們被稱為百科全書派Encyclopédiste)。

《百科全書》是啟蒙時代思想的代表之作,儘管原計劃是翻譯1728年英國出版的《錢伯斯百科全書》,它卻成為了是歷史上第一部致力於科學、藝術的綜合性百科全書。正如主編狄德羅所述,《百科全書》的目標是「改變人們的思維方式」。[2]1751年第1卷出版後,就遭到政府與教會的壓力,導致有幾卷不得不地下發行,最後10卷甚至改用假封面和倒填日期出版[1]:48

參見

參考資料

引用
  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 金常政. 百科全书的故事. 北京: 北京圖書館出版社. 2005-03. ISBN 7501326231. 
  2. ^ Lynn Hunt; Christopher R. Martin; Barbara H. Rosenwein; R. Po-chia Hsia, Bonnie G. Smith. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, A Concise History, Volume II: Since 1340. Bedford/St. Martin's. 28 July 2006: 611 [31 January 2013]. ISBN 978-0-312-43946-0. (原始內容存檔於2014-09-29). 
來源
  • Blom, Philipp, Enlightening the world: Encyclopédie, the book that changed the course of history, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, ISBN 1-4039-6895-0
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  • Brewer, Daniel, "The Encyclopédie: Innovation and Legacy" in New Essays on Diderot, edited by James Fowler, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 0-521-76956-6
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  • Hunt, Lynn, The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures: A Concise History: Volume II: Since 1340, Second Edition, Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007, ISBN 0-312-43937-7
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  • Spielvogel, Jackson J, Western Civilization, Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2011, ISBN 0-495-89733-7

拓展閱讀

  • d'Alembert, Jean Le RondPreliminary discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot, translated by Richard N. Schwab, 1995. ISBN 0-226-13476-8
  • Darnton, Robert. "The Encyclopédie wars of prerevolutionary France." American Historical Review 78.5 (1973): 1331-1352. online頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館
  • Donato, Clorinda, and Robert M. Maniquis, eds. The Encyclopédie and the Age of Revolution. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1992. ISBN 0-8161-0527-8
  • Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, Editions Flammarion, 1993. ISBN 2-08-070426-5
  • Grimsley. Ronald. Jean d'Alembert (1963)
  • Hazard, Paul. European thought in the eighteenth century from Montesquieu to Lessing (1954). pp 199-224
  • Kafker, Frank A. and Serena L. Kafker. The Encyclopedists as individuals: a biographical dictionary of the authors of the Encyclopédie (1988) ISBN 0-7294-0368-8
  • Lough, John. Essays on the Encyclopédie of Diderot and d'Alembert Oxford UP, 1968.
  • Pannabecker, John R. Diderot, the Mechanical Arts, and the Encyclopédie, 1994. With bibliography.

外部連結